Marxist Critical Methodology

Marxist critical methods involve the application of a structure of categories against the text, so that the text can be “read.” Categories include such dichotomies as “use value/market value” and “proletariat/bourgoisie,” and the classification scheme of economic substructure, social structure, and cultural superstructure. The critical method sets the context. Critical

Historical Criticism

Historical criticism generally pursues the authentication of the nonfictional text (e.g., diary, letter, governmental report) and the documentary information it provides about persons and events it discusses and their historical context. A good example is provided by V. H. Stanton’s review of the authorship of the gospel of Mark. Literary

Freudian Critical Methods

Freudian critical methods, alternatively, involve deciphering the symbolism of texts according to a theory of the human mind (rather than the human economy). In Interpretation of Dreams, Freud explicated a methodology based upon the assumption that the subconscious hides the desires of the unconscious from consciousness. This falsification occurs because

Michel Foucault’s Interpretive Analytics

The provocative and influential French thinker, Michel Foucault (1926-1984), challenged the fundamental Western liberal assumptions, originating in the Enlightenment, that history is the objective story of society in progress and that mankind can be defined in terms of an unchanging human nature. Since science has been the guarantor of progress